Physical Therapy Procedures

Hot Packs/Cold Packs
Hot packs provide superficial heat that helps to decrease stiffness, pain, increase blood flow to specific areas of the body and promotes muscular relaxation. Cold packs are applied to help decrease local temperature and may be applied in acute trauma and subacute injuries to help alleviate pain and inflammation, as well as decrease edema.

Ultrasound
This is the application of inaudible acoustic vibrations that can penetrate into the soft tissues up to 3-5 cm . The physiological effects of ultrasound include but are not limited to : increasing blood flow, helps soft tissue healing, remodeling of scar tissue joint contractures, helps chronic inflammation, burn healing, pain reduction, provides deep heating, and promotes decreases in swelling.

Electrical Stimulation
Electricity is used for pain relief, decreases in swelling and for muscular re-education. There are various 'types' of electrical stimulation that can be applied such as T.E.N.S. (Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation), Russian or functional electrical muscle stimulation for muscular re-education, and high volt stimulation to assist areas in the body where nerve innervation has been compromised.

Iontophoresis
This is the use of a small direct electrical current to administer an anti-inflammatory preparation such as dexamethasone sodium phosphate to the affected area without puncturing the skin. This is used to decrease inflammation, pain, reduce edema, treat wounds and infections, and decrease swelling in scar tissue and adhesions. This remains a popular choice for patients who are apprehensive about receiving injections

Phonophoresis
This is very similar to iontophoresis except instead of an electrical current, ultrasound is used to deliver medications applied on the skin and to the targeted tissues. This also is used to treat pain and inflammation in underlying surfaces of the body.

Neuromuscular Re-Education
This is used to increase muscle activity to facilitate a stronger contraction, or reeducate a muscle through holding a specific function, or decrease muscle activity to facilitate relaxation, or decrease spasticity. This is achieved with EMG (electromyography) biofeedback.